Priority Legislation for Nevada

Yesterday I had the pleasure of attending sessions of our state legislature. I am a volunteer for the Alzheimer’s Association and also the facilitator of my local support group and I am devoted to all causes that will help those who have this horrendous disease and those who are caregivers and family members. Our agenda included legislation to ensure that caregivers of those with Alzheimer’s and other dementias are included in explanations and instructions when the loved one is released from the hospital. Sometimes those with these cognitive impairments are simply permitted to drive home (scary!) or placed in a taxi (maybe scarier) to head home in confusion. With instructions that make no sense and an unsettled, unclear mind, who knows what dangers may lurk.

A second bill protects cognitively impaired elders from financial abuse by guardians. Other bills focused on protecting those with dementia from negligence and exploitation by caregivers and to strengthen the penalties related to these offenses. I cannot even imagine such terrible behavior in caregivers but I know that the number of people who prey on those who are unable to make wise decisions or to protect themselves is astronomical.

We were also there to support the encouragement of dementia-related training for health care providers, first responders, and workers in skilled nursing facilities. Having worked on part of this proposal I wish we could have been more forceful. The word encourage means urge, foster, persuade, and nurture all of which are nice verbs and kind responses but they mean nothing as far action is concerned. I felt like I needed to don my old cheerleader uniform and perform cartwheels and rallying cries as I “encouraged” this critical need. Team members assured me that this is an essential first step toward legislation, however, since Nevada convenes every other year, 2017 is a long way off. In the meantime thousands of individuals with Alzheimer’s and other dementias will suffer needlessly.

Suppose a loved one is out wandering and is spotted by an untrained patrol officer. The wanderer, in cognitive confusion or misunderstanding, may refuse to comply with orders to “Halt” or “Place your hands on your head”. Fear may lead to running, verbal or physical attacks, or other displays provoked by bewilderment and muddled thought processing. Handcuffs might create wild terror; being shoved into a police care may render the victim to kicking, screaming, and biting. “What is your name?” may draw a blank stare. “Where do you live?” may invoke tears. A trained office would know to approach with calm as s/he reads the eyes and demeanor and understands why simple questions made no sense, using gentleness rather than force.

As it is, on this last bill, I must restrain my eagerness and work to ease my worry as I work to educate friends, my community, and my state in the wisdom of educating everyone about Alzheimer’s disease. As the number one killer in the United States and with over 5 million diagnosed cased of a disease with no cure, no prevention, and no reversal, we all must sit up and take notice and then move into action for education and training. We will all be safer.

Advance Directives: Three Simple Documents That Can Bring You Peace of Mind

When used together, Health Care Proxies, Living Wills and Powers of Attorney can be powerful tools in making sure that your legal and medical wishes are carried out if you are unable to implement them yourself. These documents offer relatively inexpensive alternatives to costly guardianship proceedings for incapacitated loved ones.

Power of Attorney: A power of attorney is a legal instrument that enables a person of your choice (agent) to carry out your affairs if you become legally “incapacitated.” A properly executed power of attorney in the hands of a trusted relative or friend can ensure that your legal, financial, business and other personal affairs can be managed if you become unable to manage them yourself. A power of attorney can be as broad or narrow as you like. For example, you can authorize your agent to handle your bank accounts, real estate, tax or family maintenance needs, or all of your affairs. Although a power of attorney typically takes effect upon execution, you can direct that it apply only upon a certain event such as your incapacitation. Powers of attorney can be a powerful aid to relatives who may need to access your financial accounts, manage your property or handle other affairs in the event you unexpectedly become unable to do so. In New York, the standard power of attorney must be executed according to legal requirements. You may want to work with an attorney in preparing the document so it can be enforced when you need it.

Health Care Proxy: A health care proxy grants a third party (proxy) the ability to make your medical decisions if you become incapacitated. It is different from a Power of Attorney because it is the only advance directive that allows someone else to make medical decisions on your behalf. Your proxy is required to direct your care so that it reflects your preferences regarding treatment decisions and your moral and religious attitudes toward care. Like a power of attorney, the health care proxy is only valid while you are incapacitated. For example, your proxy has the ability to direct your care while you are in a coma or other unresponsive state, but cannot act if you regain the capacity to make your own decisions. A health care proxy usually assumes that you have already expressed your desires to the person you appoint as proxy. However, it may be a good idea to also memorialize your end-of-life wishes in a living will. Health care proxies must be executed in a certain manner to be binding. You may want to work with a lawyer to make sure that your wishes can be carried out if necessary.

Living Will: A living will is a document that sets forth the type and duration of medical treatment you wish to receive if you are suffering from a terminal illness. In this respect, a living will is narrower in scope than a health care proxy because it only governs end-of-life decisions. An individual has a constitutional right to make decisions regarding refusal or termination of life support. In New York, “clear and convincing evidence” of the patient’s intent must be proven. A living will is not a binding document, but does serve as “clear and convincing evidence” of your intent. When coupled with a health care proxy, a living will can set forth in detail the types of life-saving treatment you would like and the circumstances under which each should be administered. There are no statutory guidelines on the creation of a living will. However, problems can arise if the terms of your health care proxy conflict with the terms of your living will. To avoid these issues, you may want to work with an attorney to create both of these documents.

When properly drafted, powers of attorney, health care proxies and living wills can prevent a multitude of problems associated with illness and end-of-life. Medical emergencies are emotional enough. Help your family avoid arguments, uncertainty and expensive court proceedings by executing these important documents today.

Five Reasons To Contact A Social Security Disability Attorney

Because they are unable to work, about 12 million Americans with disabilities receive regular income supplements from the government. Managed by the Social Security Administration (SSA), the federal insurance program is designed to provide for those that cannot support themselves financially. But because some unscrupulous sorts try to take advantage of the system, a rigorous screening process helps determine which applicants truly need and deserve financial assistance.

The Numbers

According to official figures from the SSA, only about 40 percent of all applications for Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) are approved at the state level. Why are so many requests for help rejected? As mentioned, some applicants exaggerate and invent impairments for a chance at some easy money. Then there are those who have legitimate issues but don’t know how to apply for benefits. These are the people that should contact a social security disability attorney as soon as possible.

How Can An Attorney Help?

You have a much better chance of receiving SSDI benefits if your case appears before an administrative law judge (ALJ). More than two-thirds of hearing decisions result in approval, according to official data from the SSA. The reason is that many of these applicants are represented by an attorney. As long as you have a legitimate impairment, these legal specialists can help you win your claim. How?

Making A Case

Just like any other court case, a disability attorney must build an argument based on evidence. He must then present it according to the rules of the court. Because few applicants have a high level of familiarity or expertise with this process, the chances of them developing an accurate, persuasive case are small. You probably only have one opportunity to make your case and start receiving the SSDI benefits you need.

Going At It Alone

Although it is possible to represent yourself at an ALJ hearing, it’s uncommon for a reason. Most petitioners weigh the risks of going without legal representation against their future livelihood and decide to contact a social security disability attorney shortly after that.


Because they work on a contingency basis, these lawyers will only charge you if they win. As such, they only take cases that they believe. What does this mean for you? For starters, you should bring medical evidence of your disability to your initial consultation. The lawyer can then peruse doctor’s notes and other evidence to determine if you have a solid case.

An experienced social security disability attorney can significantly increase you odds of receiving supplemental income for your impairment.

What Are Elder Law Attorneys and How Do I Choose One?

Elder law attorneys handle the wide array of legal matters that affect older or disabled people. This includes concerns like care planning, guardianship, retirement, Medicare, taxes, living wills, estate planning, and housing issues among others. This is a new concept to many people, and it’s actually a fairly new category in the legal field. If you’re new to the idea, you might wonder why finding someone to represent your or your loved one is important.

Who Are Elder Law Attorneys?

They have to be licensed to practice in one or more state, practicing for five years or more, and have finished 45 hours of continuing education in this area during the last three years in order to be certified by the National Elder Law Foundation for this kind of practice. They also have to pass a certificate examination.

Do I Really Need One?

Elder law attorneys are good for people who need help navigating the extreme complexities of federal taxes, property matters, Medicare/Medicaid, and social security. Your lawyer can help advocate for the best next step, and they can also make sure you’re taking that next step legally. They can also be a compassionate, but not overly emotional, advisor, helping prepare trusts, wills, and plans for end-of-life.

How do I Choose the Right Person for My Needs?

If you or your loved one has a specific case matter, like age discrimination, disability, mental health issues, social security, or an abuse case, may want to consider hiring someone who has expertise in your area. If you’re looking for more overall service, ask whether or not they’ve had similar clients to you or your loved one. Ask them what outcomes can be expected if you hire them, or how other cases similar to yours have turned out. You should also make sure that they are very familiar with the statutes in your state, which, usually, change all the time. Finally, find out if they are members of any organizations that are specifically related to your needs.

How Much Will This Cost Me?

Fees can be assessed in many different ways. Ask up front about how much and how often you’ll be billed. Some will expect payment biweekly, others monthly, and still others will ask for payment at the end of the work. Some charge a flat fee, while others will want to be paid by the hour and may also bill for paralegal or research hours. Also, ask about any incidental costs you may be assessed, for things like copies, postage, or court fees.

Once you choose one of the available elder law attorneys to represent you or your loved one, make sure you get your arrangement in writing so that your expectations of each other are clearly spelled out. This is important because of the type of work he or she will engage in. You should feel comfortable with the person you’ve chosen to help navigate these difficult waters.

Joint Tenancy in California: What Could Possibly Go Wrong?

Almost all homes, as well as other assets, owned by spouses in California are held in joint tenancy. Joint tenancy is a form of ownership where everyone on title owns 100% of the subject property. Generally speaking, as people die, the “last man standing” is the individual who will own the asset outright. Because nothing formal needs to be done, for many people this seems like a nifty way to avoid a California probate as well as the need for estate planning in California. Pretty smart right? Well, not exactly…

While it’s true that joint tenancy might avoid a probate and could alleviate the need for some estate planning, everybody should understand the risks involved with holding Joint Tenancy assets, especially in California. Some of the risks are obvious while others are shockingly subtle. Below, I’ve grouped the risks into three major categories, starting with some of the more well known problems and then discussing some of the less obvious fiascos that California joint tenancies create:

Problem #1 – Who will be the ultimate owner of joint tenancy assets?

Most of the time, the “final” owner of joint tenancy property is a spouse (when title is solely held by a husband and wife). But after both spouses pass away, the question remains: who inherits then? If no estate planning is carried out before the death of the surviving spouse, joint tenancy assets will pass via “intestate succession” (i.e. how the State of California guesses you would have wanted it to pass). If you have the “Wally Cleaver” family this may not be an inheritance problem, per se, because the asset will be split and eventually distributed to the children of both husband and wife. Of course, there will likely be a long and costly probate court proceeding to make that happen but at least the assets wind up in the “right” hands.

So under the best case scenario, assets might pass the way parents want, but it will cost a significant amount of money and take (usually) one to two years in California. But what happens if we tweak the facts a little and/or the family dynamics are not perfect?

Answer: All sorts of wild things. And how often do these problems really occur? Answer: A lot.

For example, if a child predeceases a parent in California, and that parent held her house in joint tenancy with her son and daughter, that asset will end up 100% in the hands of the other surviving child, while cutting out the grandchildren of the first predeceased child. Most parents cringe at the thought of unintentionally cutting out legitimate heirs.

Another unintentional result occurs when a spouse or child is holding property in joint tenancy and then the child gets sued (because of a car accident, bankruptcy, etc.) and that creditor ends up attaching the property that mom or dad believed they solely owned. In other words, holding assets in joint tenancy gives potential creditors of your beneficiaries the right to seize your assets! Obviously, this is a horrible result when it happens.

Actually, what occurs even more often than the “unintentional” transfers mentioned above are the intentional transfers. These occur most often when there are children of a prior relationship involved or a surviving spouse simply gets remarried at some point. In these situations, it is frequently the case that the “survivor” of the original joint tenancy leaves those (joint) assets to a new spouse (It is interesting to note that this could happen intentionally or inadvertently when new spouses create yet another joint tenancy). Another common result occurs when the survivor of joint tenancy property, leaves those assets to their children from a prior relationship, instead of to your biological children.

Estate planning attorneys are well aware of the problems encountered above because these outcomes happen frequently in California. But what about some of the less obvious problems…

Problem #2 – Tax Issues!

The interplay between the death and income tax systems is tricky when it comes to how title to property is held. This is especially true in California as well as a few other community property states. You see, when spouses hold property in joint tenancy in California and one of them passes away, there is only a step-up in tax basis on the deceased persons half of estate assets under IRC section 1014. That means, there is still a lot of potential tax owed by the surviving spouse on those assets. (Conversely, when the same assets are held in a living trust in California, there is a 100% step-up in tax basis on 100% of all capital assets owned; meaning there will be no tax owed when a surviving spouse goes to sell them.) Sometimes couples who held real property in joint tenancy are “saved” by IRC section 121 for quick sales of a principal residence-this is the potential exemption available when people live two out of the past five years in their home. In these situations, the survivor can get a $250,000 step-up in tax basis. However, this safety net only applies to a principal residence and not any other assets (i.e., a second home, stock, etc.). But oftentimes, even with the possibility of using both IRC sections 121 and 1014, there is still not enough to save a surviving spouse from crushing taxes.

To illustrate the problem above, I will tell you about a real life example of a person who got caught in the crosshairs of a California joint tenancy, lack of a stepped-up basis and large capital gains taxes. In this persons case, besides other assets, he and his wife held two homes in joint tenancy. She passed away in January of 2014 and he sold one house in late 2014. He also had the second home up for sale in 2015 because he could no longer live there. Prior to filing his 2014 tax return, he decided to set up a California living trust. Through this process, the difference between tax basis, California community property ownership, joint tenancy ownership, and his current tax ramifications were explained to him. As the realization set in that he owed an enormous amount of tax – tax that was totally unnecessary to trigger – he was not happy, to say the least. The reason he now owed extra tax was because he and his wife bought both properties for relatively little and held them in California joint tenancies. Upon her passing, her half of the properties were stepped-up, while his half was not. On the first sale, even with one-half of each home receiving a stepped-up basis, the sale of his half of the home created a huge tax burden for him. He was able to use his IRC section 121 exclusion to help make up some of the difference and that definitely helped. But even with the half step-up in basis, plus his $250,000 IRC section 121 exclusion, he still owed quite a bit of tax. To make matters worse, he couldn’t live in the second home and if he went through with his proposed sale, he was going to face even much worse tax ramifications. So, instead of paying tens of thousands of dollars of yet even more tax, he was forced into holding the second home (and paying property taxes, insurance, upkeep, etc.) for a minimum of two more years in order to hopefully capture another IRC section 121 exclusion. And he was lucky! Had he not quickly consulted with a tax professional, he would have additionally lost out on the second exclusion. Please note that all of this may be a bit confusing but the point is that if he and his wife had not held the properties in California joint tenancies, and instead, held them in a California living trust, he would have owed zero tax. But in an effort to save a few dollars on estate planning, these joint tenancies in California cost him dearly.

Amazingly, the problem would be much worse if a parent (instead of spouses) tried to use joint tenancies instead of a trust in California because almost 100% of the time, the protection afforded under IRC section 121 would not be available. Still, the issues caused by California joint tenancies in these first two categories of problems pale in comparison to the dilemmas that arise in the following situations…

Problem #3 – The subtle, yet HUGE elder law issues which California joint tenancies cause.

This category of problem is especially noxious both because few people understand the relationship between California joint tenancies and California elder law, and also because of the extent of damage that that lack of knowledge causes. You see, in the past, most people have been focused on the question of what happens to their stuff when they die, while completely ignoring the question of what happens to their stuff if they live?

What’s the difference? Confused? Why does it matter you ask? Answer: It matters because in California, seniors can receive Medi-Cal or Veterans Pension Benefits (under the right circumstances) to pay for long term skilled nursing care. And receiving these government benefits just might stave of bankruptcy. But for those who failed to do any estate planning and are holding onto joint tenancies, government benefits may not be available.

In order to understand why the above is true, it’s important to understand California elder law. California elder law however, is extremely complicated. But again, a real life example can help explain the elder law/joint tenancy issues more clearly. In this case, a wife and her husband held their primary home in joint tenancy in California. They also held all of their liquid accounts in joint tenancy. And in addition, they recently began construction of a retirement home, which they held (you guessed it) in joint tenancy. The joint tenancies seemed like a good transfer plan to them, until the husband suddenly and out of nowhere suffered a debilitating brain injury. After months in the hospital (which Medicare covered), the hospital kicked him out and into skilled nursing care. The cost of skilled nursing was, and is, $880/day. Although the first few days were covered by Medicare, some simple math revealed that in less than four years both husband and wife would become bankrupt. What’s worse, is that neither of them had any estate planning in place. This means that she had no authority to do anything with his half of their assets. Furthermore, because the homes are held in joint tenancy, she cannot do anything meaningful with her half of those properties! That’s because she simply has no authority to act for him, which as a consequence of joint ownership means that she also has no power over her half as well. (In theory, she could try to sell her half, but who is going to buy ½ of a house?) Thus, as long as the homes remain jointly owned, she has no ability to control the economic value of the homes. Thus, she is unable to borrow against the home(s) if a loan is required for their maintenance and support (or, in this case, for the retirement home to be fully built in the first place). And she is unable to sell either home to raise funds to pay for the care her husband so desperately needs (not to mention future care that she may need).

If they had had their assets in a trust, or at least, had had really good elder law powers of attorney, she could now do protection planning for their assets and in the process avail her husband of Medi-Cal (California’s version of Medicaid). But they didn’t do that and can’t now do it, after husband’s brain injury. Thus, those California joint tenancies literally left her in quicksand. Put another way, she can do nothing but let the half-built house rot, while her husband is stuck in expensive skilled nursing care.

But there must be some solution you wonder? Well, sometimes people will Petition a court under a “3100 Petition” to beg a judge to let her “gift” his half of the assets to her, to help them both stave off bankruptcy. But there is no guarantee that a judge will rule in her favor. In fact, in Los Angeles where she is located, there is a good chance that a judge will not allow her to do this. Judges in Los Angeles are simply not so sympathetic to these situations.

So what are her options? She can do nothing and if she dies before him (the result that nobody ever thinks of, but happens sometimes), the family assets will be 100% his (under joint tenancy law) and it is likely that their entire estate will end up paying for his care, leaving nothing to show for a lifetime of hard work. On the other hand, if he dies first, she will be able to do some planning after the fact, but she will face all the same tax issues above as well as possibly being stuck with his large medical bills.

Since the aforementioned outcomes are pretty horrible, if her 3100 Petition is not approved, she will be forced into petitioning for a regular probate court conservatorship for her husband. This should allow her to get out of the quicksand and act (a little). But the problem is that simply opening a conservatorship will not allow her to effectively preserve family assets. In other words, in this situation, she is looking at hundreds of thousands of dollars wasted, both in terms of lost Medi-Cal as well as conservatorship legal costs.

Any way you slice it, her joint tenancy assets are going to cost her dearly. The only question is to what extent the damage will be? This is the reason elder law and joint tenancies in California are especially dangerous. At least in the first two categories above, just a persons heirs hopes are thwarted. But in these elder law situations, California joint tenancies could literally leave their owners broke!

The moral of the story: if people engage in regular estate and elder law planning, instead of trying to avoid planning by using California joint tenancies, they can achieve all their goals without losing part, or all, of their assets to taxes and long term care costs.

The UK Government’s Battle Against Dementia

The government has promised it will spend more than £300m on the battle against dementia, which is set to be one of the biggest problems Britain’s health system will face during the next two decades. The money will be invested into research and support services over the next five years as part of the Challenge on Dementia 2020 initiative.

Dementia is not an illness in itself, it’s a name for the mental disorders caused by strokes and diseases such as Alzheimer’s. Although the early symptoms, such as forgetfulness, are likely to be minor, they can develop into a highly debilitating condition that deeply affects the lives of sufferers, their families and friends.

It has been estimated that by 2025 there will be 1 million people in the UK living with some form of dementia. So Prime Minister David Cameron has unveiled a number of government led measures that aim to encourage better understanding and management of the disorder, as well as further development of treatment and preventative steps.

There are 1.3 million people working for the NHS and the intention is for everyone from clinical staff to porters to be given dementia training in order to improve care standards. A trained network of about 3 million dementia ‘friends’ will also be created; the plan being to enlist sympathetic members of the public to the cause. However, the major commitment is the pledge to spend at least £300m on medical research and technology. This is set to include the establishment of an international dementia institute to carry out innovative trials and studies.

Although the Challenge Dementia 2020 announcement has been welcomed, it’s important to remember that people suffering from the condition will still need assistance to put their business and personal affairs in order before their symptoms become too advanced.

If legal agreements have not been made prior to the conditioning worsening then families can often lack the authority to make decisions on behalf of the sufferer, which means they will likely have to go to court in order to obtain the relevant powers.

One way to avoid this problem altogether is for people to create a Lasting Power of Attorney while they are still in good health. There are two LPAs; one that covers property and finance, and another that deals with personal welfare. Both allow a nominated person to take control of important, and everyday, decisions should the need arise.

Public Guardian Prevents Misuse of Dementia Sufferer’s Money

The loss of the mental capacity needed to manage one’s own affairs isn’t only traumatic for the individual concerned – it can be a huge worry for the family too. Lasting powers of attorney, or LPAs, are a long-standing and trusted way of enabling a nominated party to take over financial and other official dealings.

Most of the time, LPAs work without a hitch, and give everyone concerned considerable peace of mind. However, problems can and do sometimes crop up, and to prevent vulnerable people being exploited as a result, the Court of Protection and the Office of the Public Guardian are there to intervene.

An intervention recently took place in the case of an elderly dementia sufferer who had set up an LPA for two of her four children prior to becoming ill, enabling them to manage her financial affairs. Warning bells rang for the Public Guardian when a sum of £75,000 – £15,000 to the daughter, £20,000 each to her three sons – was taken from the woman’s account, and an application was made for the LPA to be revoked.

The daughter’s defence was that she had left her job and become unemployed in order to become her mother’s carer. In addition, she said that her mother had been in agreement that she should help her financially, and that her three sons should have equal treatment financially.

Even though the judge concluded that the court would have been sympathetic to the daughter’s request had she applied for an allowance through the correct channels, she had failed to do so. In addition, the sum of £15,000 that she had allocated to herself from her mother’s account far exceeded what she would have been allowed as a gift within the confines of the law under the conditions of the LPA.

The Court of Protection also determined that the gift amounts of £20,000 to each of the three sons were also excessive. Having decided that the daughter and her brother had failed to carry out their duties as attorneys by contravening their authority as such, the court revoked the LPA. Since the woman still required an LPA, the local authority was appointed as her deputy to manage her affairs.

If you have any questions or concerns about the Court of Protection or Lasting Powers of Attorney arising from this, it is always best to discuss it with a solicitor.

Why Is Financial Elder Abuse a Growing Problem?

Unfortunately, elder abuse occurs every day in the U.S. Mistreatment of seniors can take many forms including abandonment or neglect, physical, psychological, verbal, sexual or financial abuse. Of all types, financial elder abuse is one of the most common and can have devastating consequences for the targeted senior.

This type of abuse can be inflicted by a trusted caregiver or by a scammer on the outside. The caregiver, often a close family member, uses their position of influence to establish control over the elder’s budget or property and may pilfer the victim’s accounts, use their credit cards or personal checks, cash social security or other income checks for their own use, or steal valuable items from the senior’s household. Con artists target the elderly through many types of fraudulent schemes, through use of telemarketing, the internet or even done in person.

It is generally acknowledged that financial exploitation of seniors is a growing problem, but why is this form of elder abuse occurring more and more frequently?

The senior age group, as a percentage of the populace as a whole, is getting larger every day. The sheer number of elderly people who may be targeted for mistreatment is a factor. Abusers know that this large group holds a disproportionately higher share of accumulated wealth due to their many years of earning a living, saving and investing. These facts combined with harsh economic times faced by the potential abuser increases the likelihood for financial elder abuse.

Some sociologists claim that close proximity in the family to assets or wealth can create a stronger sense of entitlement. A son, daughter or grandchild may begin to believe that because of family ties they have an immediate claim to the elder’s money or possessions. They may even convince the victim that it is within the family member’s rights to take possession of certain assets in return for taking care of the senior.

Abusers of the elderly normally count on the isolation of the victim in order to carry out the mistreatment. Whether it be a family member or a paid caregiver, if the senior depends on only one person for most or all of their care and well being, the situation could be ripe for financial and other abuse. In today’s society it is typical for family units to become more and more separated, increasing the chances that the elder is left with only one caregiver, with little or no oversight by other family or friends. If the senior’s family members are not in regular communication with each other, this makes it even easier for the abuse to go undetected.

Financial elder abuse is a serious concern and regrettably becoming more commonplace as societal norms change and our population ages. Understanding the reasons why the exploitation occurs is the first step in preventing this and other types of abuse of our valued senior citizens. If you believe that financial elder abuse might be occurring, you should contact a financial elder abuse lawyer immediately. With proper legal assistance, you might be able to better determine what has actually occurred and what options you may have to remedy the situation.