Why File Encryption Is Cheap – Identity Theft Insurance Against Computer Identity Theft

With more identity information collected and conveniently stored in digital form, it has become much easier for savvy thieves to steal large amounts of personal identification information from computers, particularly from vulnerable employee laptops. The stolen information is then used or sold to become part of the huge identity theft problem facing businesses and individuals. As older methods of protecting information on the computer have proved inadequate in deterring sophisticated cyber criminals, security experts have started to recommend file encryption as a cheap and reliable method of protecting vital information.

Passwords Aren’t Enough

Although passwords are a necessary part of computer security, even the best passwords are unable to fully protect the information on a computer. Password hacking has reached the stage where almost all passwords can be broken, given enough time. Likewise, security devices for laptops may protect against easy theft, but aren’t much use against persistent identity thieves. A much more secure way to provide cheap identity theft insurance for computer files is to use file encryption. The best file encryption programs are user friendly and can be run automatically without hindering computer performance. The cost of such programs is far less than the cost of rectifying stolen identification information.

Encryption Solutions

Digital information can be encrypted in several different ways. FDE, or full disk encryption, protects data by encrypting everything on the hard drive that boots the computer. Access to the data is limited to those who can authenticate to the FDE software. Another type of encryption is virtual disk encryption in which a container is created on the disk to hold files and folders. Users cannot access the container at all without successful authentication. A third type of encryption, file or folder encryption, encrypts individual files or folders, and denies access to those without proper authentication. These files have separate encryption keys and can be managed on an individual basis. File encryption is often used when multiple users share a single computer. Cryptographic systems of this type can encrypt even the metadata belonging to the files, which can be important for identity information storage.

All encryption solutions require good management, and businesses must maintain the solutions to their encryption products. As encryption technology changes and inevitable vulnerabilities on older technologies are discovered, older devices containing identity information could be attacked and accessed by enterprising hackers. With knowledgeable management, good encryption solutions have become a crucial part of computer security.

Net Neutrality: What the FCC’s Decision Means for the US

What is Net Neutrality?

Net neutrality is the philosophy that an On line service ought not to differentiate between the different websites, software programs, and services that are spread on its network. This can be privately guaranteed, by means of a written agreement between a subscriber and their Internet based Service Provider, or it may well be enforced by the government. Usually when “net neutrality” is spoken about, it refers to the idea of the government enforcing it. The agency which has taken on the objective of guaranteeing net neutrality is the Federal Communications Commission.

FCC’s Recent Net Neutrality Order

On December 21, 2010, the FCC voted in favor of making Internet based Service Providers to adopt net neutrality as a policy. The press release’s title was “FCC Acts to Preserve World-wide-web Freedom and Openness,” as only those who oppose freedom and openness may possibly be opposed to net neutrality. The second page of this section is dedicated to discussing the substantiations of the ruling.

The most sizeable portion of the FCC’s Report and Order on net neutrality was “Rule 2: No Blocking”:

A person engaged in the provision of fixed broadband Word wide web access service, insofar as such person is so engaged, shall not block lawful content, applications, services, or non-harmful devices, subject to reasonable network management.

A individual employed in the provision involving mobile broadband Online access service, insofar as such person is so engaged, shall not block consumers from accessing lawful websites, subject to reasonable network system management; nor shall such person block applications that compete with the provider’s voice or video telephony services, subject to reasonable system management.

The effect of this law is to limit ISPs from determining when they may or may not restrict traffic. The phrase “reasonable computer network management” has its own definition listed in the Report and Order, but it is so broad that it will inevitably permit the FCC to crack down on ISPs whenever it feels like doing so. If they engage in the most common Administrative Law practice, they are likely to litigate against smaller ISPs who have a lesser chance of defending themselves.

Net Neutrality isn’t new.. It previously attempted to regulate the network management practices of Comcast-specifically Comcast’s regulation of peer-to-peer file-sharing on its system. The FCC attempted to justify its actions by stating that it had an “ancillary authority” granted by the broadly worded Communications Act of 1934, which states that the FCC is authorized to “perform any and all acts, make such rules and regulations, and issue such orders, not inconsistent with this chapter, as may be necessary in the execution of its functions” (47 U.S.C.? 154(i)). Comcast later set up a court challenge in opposition to the FCC, and in April 2010 the US Court of Appeals in the District of Columbia sided with Comcast and granted its order for review of the FCC’s decision.

In granting the order for review, the Court cited another case that it had previously decided, stating that “the allowance of wide latitude in the exercise of delegated powers is not the equivalent of untrammeled freedom to regulate activities over which the statute fails to confer… Commission authority.”

There are numerous economic and constitutional issues with the recent net neutrality legislation from the FCCThis has not stopped the FCC from taking action, however. Aside from the fact that an administrative agency is taking seemingly even greater liberties than those which were struck down in the Comcast case earlier this year, and extinguishing Congress’ wish to debate the law, the businesses which are affected are going to suffer. By simply keeping companies from determining which visitors may possibly be limited, the FCC is going to give them two choices:

1) Deal with overburdened networks;

2) Increase the aggregate network bandwidth but distribute costs evenly so that those who may use the World wide web for only basic browsing and e-mail have to pay for the iTunes downloads of someone else.

Possibly way, it will not look good for ISPs and also their particular customers who use less bandwidth than their fellow subscribers. It’s going to be interesting to watch the coming court cases over the next year or so, which ISPs and possibly affected consumers will no doubt want to launch. Our lawmakers can likely join in the fray, too.

If you would like to learn more about how the new net neutrality law affects you, or would like assistance in considering possible legal options regarding the law, please contact a qualified World wide web law attorney.

Your New Year’s Resolution: Take Internet and Smartphone Protection More Seriously

With a brand new year upon us, experts are concerned. Very concerned. It was reported last week that British law enforcement expects internet and cyber crime to surpass traditional crime rates for the first time in British history. Law enforcement officials lamented that while their jobs used to consist of apprehending thieves attempting to rob cars or vandalize homes, they are now faced with the seemingly inordinate task of detaining criminals from thousands of miles away. Criminals engaged in complex internet hacking and identity theft schemes.

Almost all U.K. precincts report an upsurge of internet and cyber-savvy crimes. Most consider spyware and “malware” to be the most significant types of attacks, and the most likely cause devastating identity theft on unsuspecting victims. Further, many of these victims do not have protection and anti-theft software in place to protect themselves from attack, further encouraging criminals and frustrating law enforcement. The increased use of smartphones and iPads has furthered the problem as well.

The smartphone craze has stimulated the hysteria over cyber crime and victimization. Law enforcement all over the world reports increased smartphone theft, much associated with violent robberies and assaults. In the U.K., a group has been set up to help combat the problem known as the Mobile Industry Crime Action Forum. The Forum urges smartphone users to stay aware when using mass public transit, the most common place for theft. The scariest aspect of smartphone crime is what can happen after the theft. Many times, thieves charge sellers in Eastern Europe, Algeria, Morocco or West Africa thousands of dollars for a smartphone filled with sensitive data. Thereafter, sellers can use the data to steal the identity of the victim and wreak havoc on his credit and identity.

With so much cyber and smartphone crime around us, 2011 must bring an increased awareness and fervor for security. London-based Snuko, P.L.C. has offered clients across the globe the opportunity to secure their phones and laptops. Snuko’s smartphone products allow for remote location of a stolen item and total lock-out of unauthorized users. The inexpensive product can assure that victims of violent crime can mitigate their losses by recovering their stolen property before it is sent overseas and virtually lost forever.

Attention to protection constant awareness of threats could help lead to 2011 being the first year to see a decline in internet and cyber crime in recent memory. With just a little extra caution, internet and smartphone users can rest assured their identity will be safe in the new year and for many more to come.

Cyber Crime Through the Eyes of a Normal Internet User

Man has always strived to discover new things to make life better and more comfortable. He has been always motivated to find new vistas and try new methods and technological advancements using the intellect. One development leads to another and he never just stops and advancement and progress in never ending and is an on going project.

Nothing has changed the world more drastically as the internet. Since the wide world of web this world is no longer divided by invisible boundaries. It has become a global village and the advancement in the information technology has changed the lifestyle of the people radically. This change is obvious only since the last 15 years when the concept of personal computers came into existence. People are always connected to their electronic gadgets and almost all functions of our daily lives are dependent on the internet or the related technology.

Pros and cons of the cyber space:

As always the good and the evil are like two sides of a coin. Though the advantages outweigh the disadvantages it is high time we looked into them before they spread. Computer, internet or information technology related crimes are termed as cyber crimes. So what really is cyber crime? How seriously can these crimes affect common man or business establishments? What actions can be taken to curb such crimes and what legal action is needed to restrict the criminals who are into this? Cyber crime is growing to be a greatest threat to mankind and hence serious considerations and actions are definitely needed to check its spreading further.

We need to first understand what cyber crime is and what all activities are termed as cyber crimes. Cyber crime simply means criminal activities using the telecommunication and internet technology. Basically cyber crimes can be categorized into two types. They are,

  • Crimes which are directly targeted on vast computer networks or other related devices. For example, malware, computer viruses, attacks on denial of services etc
  • Crimes that are facilitated by the computer networks targeted not on any independent network or device. For example, identity theft, cyber stalking, phishing, email scams, hacking etc.

Cyber crimes are also considered or at least in lieu with white collar crimes, as the culprit cannot be conned very easily as the internet is open to the wide world. Although most cyber crimes are not related to any violence or serious crime still identity threat or government secrets can be virtually stolen in no time if the security measures fail. Terrorist, deviants and extremists stand higher chances of using this technology for their illegal and anti social activities.

Internet related frauds:

Almost 163 million users are estimated to use the internet this year as against just 16.1 million in 1995. thus the need for a more secured network becomes imperative keeping in mind the user’s overall security.

The anonymous nature of the internet is the breeding ground for criminals who engage in activities which are termed as virtual crimes or cyber crimes. Governments have introduced cyber laws to curb such activities but then no serious punishment is awarded to the criminal or individuals who are involved in cyber crimes. Proper legal infrastructure is yet to be created and powerful regulatory mechanisms formed to protect netizens.

Let us now have a look of the different types of cyber law and the amount of damage they release to the society or individual. Generally the cyber threats sources are of three types. They are,

  • hacking related threats
  • traditional criminal threats
  • ideology Threats


This is one of the common forms of cyber crime found in the cyber space worldwide. It has been defined as “whoever with the intent to cause or knowing that he is likely to cause wrongful loss or damage to the public or any person destroys or deletes or alters any information residing in a computer resource or diminishes its value or utility or affects it injuriously by any means commits hacking”. A hacker can crack into computer system thus gaining access to all internal information. Many hackers just do it for fun or pastime. Hacking is considered less harmful than other security related crimes.

Basically the hacker’s main aim is to disrupt a system or network. Whether he is a white hat hacker or black hat hacker his level of destruction is to stop or get the access to the computer systems. Repeated hacking or tampering constantly might take a hacker behind bars but many times these crimes are taken lightly.

Traditional cyber crimes

Criminals whose focus is on monetary gains only are called traditional cyber criminals. Most of them are identified as some internal source. Recent study has confirmed that almost 80% criminals of such crimes belong to the related company or firm. Industrial espionage, intellectual property crime, trademark violation, illegal fund transfers, credit card scams, etc are some of the traditional cyber crimes. Such criminals who conduct these crimes are more likely to end up behind bars if the crime is proved.

Ideology cyber threats:

Stolen data are circulated as against the intellectual property laws according to such ideology threats. These criminals consider themselves as Robin Hood and spread the data which is preserved under intellectual property rights. Many terrorist activities are also termed as ideology threats in the cyber world. They spread their own ideology or oppose government’s by using the internet technology. Cyberanarchistsis how they are called and their primary aim is to spread their ideology or principles and opposing what is against their activities. Many terrorists’ plans and data’s are also considered as cyber threats.

Thus whatever be the nature of cyber crime strict laws must be administered to enable a secured cyber space. As more and more of our daily activities becomes connected or interlinked in cyber space the need for a complete secure technology has become the need of the hour. Be is simple email hacking or phishing, the people involved in such activities are definitely invading the privacy of individuals and business organizations. Identity thefts, money swindling and credit card scams are grave issues which can cause irreparable damage to the person concerned.

Prevention is definitely better than cure:

How can we prevent our network or computer systems against the so the cyber criminals? How can the government aid in curbing such high risk threats to the society? As individuals it is important that we use the best internet security system to protect our systems from cyber attacks. It is important to use strong password to protect the emails or other important data or document stored online. Important details like bank account user names and passwords must not be stored online or in the computer. Remember that the cyber space is an open network and has no security or safety against such important data.

Never open unidentified emails and never reply or believe in email scams saying that you have won millions of dollars in an online lottery. Credit cards must be used sparingly or wisely online. Unsecured sites and restricted sites are always high on risk and thus using your credit cards on such sites is highly unadvisable. Always keep changing passwords and install a powerful anti virus software to protect against torzons, viruses and malware.

Companies and business establishment must ask the workers to sign powerful contracts to prevent internal identity thefts. The servers and domains must be well secured for continuous cyber security for their data. Government datas and highly secretive data must be under strict scrutiny. Hackers are also used by enemy nations to fid out the internal secrets of an opponent country. So, all forms of top secret is better not stored online. Too much information exposed is always a cyber threat. Vigilance, awareness and not sharing personal information while networking can prevent most of such cyber crimes.

The government must setup cyber wings to identify such criminals and put forth strong rules or punishment for cyber criminals. Cyber laws must be very strict and newer technology must be used to easily find these criminals to curb their illegal activity. Steps to block the erring person and information updated on such criminals can help the general public from identifying the different crimes in the cyber space. After all knowledge is what can make one powerful, isn’t it?

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Cyber Crime Definition

Today, definitions for cybercrime cross over multiple spectra. The following information is a collaboration of definitions built to answer your questions about this growing threat to individuals and organizations.

Many of the cyber crime articles available on the Internet today can appear outdated as they fall short of a uniform categorization or specific steps on methods for fighting cybercrime or even how to support cyber crime victims. These barriers also create difficulty for those attempting to report cybercrime. With today’s rapid growth of technology, as well as updates to cyber law cannot stop cyber crime from growing and updating in kind. Internet fraud is certainly the area that most personal computer (PC) users are concerned about, and cyber crime study, continues to be left to amateurs or veteran criminologists. It is critical today that both users and organizations comprehend and teach what is cyber crime and how to stop it. The broad meaning of cybercrime can be narrowed down by looking at specific crimes that are most common.

Cyber Identity Theft and Computer Hacking, considered by experts as the most common forms of cybercrime, involve the theft of personal information that is attainable through computer systems and computer networks. Phishing and pharming seem to have the most success as potential victims of these crimes do not think twice when sites that veil their criminal intent, or even look identical to sites familiar to Internet users, which makes it easy for cyber criminals to collect critical online identity information:

  • Full Name
  • Phone Number
  • Address
  • Login
  • Password
  • Credit Card/Bank Account numbers

Cyberspace crime involves much more than Identity Theft, and, today, does not even require Internet use. The growth of interest in topics such as cyberbullying, commonly perpetrated through the use of cell phones, is on pace to achieve Identity Theft’s level of notoriety. Current Wiki Leak and Hactivist news items have also shown the Global nature of cybercrime, while broadening the cyber crime definition. Protection from these and other cyberspace crimes are quickly becoming popular subjects.

Why Your Computer Crime Attorney Needs to Understand Computer Forensics

When you are charged with a computer crime, you want an attorney that will do everything he or she can to defend you. Staying out of prison, avoiding a criminal record and protecting your family is important to you. Then why would you hire an attorney for a computer crime if that attorney doesn’t know anything about computer forensics?

As an attorney, we have to be experts in everything. That’s what makes this job so fun. While we cannot be experts in everything all of the time, we need to have a basic understanding of the issues that we will face. Its the same reason why the days of the general practitioner are pretty much dead. There is just too much out there to know. Thus, I don’t expect that many attorneys will become a computer forensics expert, they should have a basic understanding of what it is and how to use it to craft a defense. However, most don’t because many lawyers went to law school before the modern computer became common place. Thus, many still have a fear of computers and technology in general. Even though this attorney may be great in other areas, selecting this same attorney to defend you in your computer crimes case could lead to disaster.

Computer forensics is the art and science of applying computer science to aid the legal process. It is a vast subject area that first requires a deep knowledge of computers and networks which is why many lawyers don’t even bother learning it. Thus, it is impossible to even tough on the most basic concepts of computer forensics in this article. Instead, I will highlight how and why it is important for the lawyer to understand computer forensics when defending computer crime cases.

In just about every case, the State will have a computer crime expert who will discuss computer forensics. Thus, you may need an expert as well. If you have one, he or she can help you make sense out of their expert’s reports and testimony. However, this person is not a lawyer. Relying solely on their input essentially turns the defense of the case over to a non-lawyer. Would you want a surgeon to operate on you based upon the advice of someone who is not a doctor? Furthermore, you may not always be fortunate enough to have a client that can afford an expert. Thus, you need to be able to understand what their expert is saying both in their reports and testimony.

This will also prevent the “deer in a headlights” look that experts often create when they “teach” the defense lawyer. As the defense lawyer, you should be doing the teaching, not the State’s expert. However, I have seen defense lawyers ask open ended questions in an attempt to understand the expert’s testimony. The expert winds up doing more damage that they did on direct as the expert is teaching everyone, including the jury and the defense lawyer on cross examination. This leads to sloppy, almost non-existent cross examination. Quite often, the case may be lost right then and there as the jury may wind up totally believing the expert. And after all, without anything to really impeach the expert’s testimony, why wouldn’t they?

Experts aren’t always experts but they sure think that they are. Quite often, they have been trained on how to testify. Some almost seem to have a script. If you don’t know what you are talking about, they will walk all over you. If you can talk the talk, you’ll not only gain their respect, but you’ll also scare them. Your cross can be much tighter and focused. More importantly, you can more easily take them off script by using their terms and by knowing their methods and policies. Your job is to know more than they do on the key issues in your case. You have the benefit of having everything you want right in front of you while they are on the witness stand with nothing. I have been able to impeach expert witnesses with their own policy manuals. I ask open ended questions where the answer cannot hurt me to test their knowledge. An “I don’t know answer” is not very damaging but a wrong answer is. As soon as you get the wrong answer, you can use their own materials to impeach them. Nothing takes the wind out of the State’s case faster than to show that the emperor (the witness) has no clothes.

Besides trial issues, a defense lawyer cannot make sense out of the discovery without a working knowledge of computer forensics. Again, while a defense expert can help, they should not be relied upon to interpret the entire case. In my cases, I rarely need my expert to tell me what the defenses are. Instead, I need the expert to testify as I cannot.

Just about every computer crime case involves some degree of computer forensics. If the defense attorney just assumes that police are correct, then the attorney is not properly defending the client. Computer forensics involves the collection, preservation, filtering and presentation of digital evidence. In each stage of this process, something can go seriously wrong that could make it seem like the client is guilty when they are in fact, innocent.

Collection of digital evidence is when artifacts considered to be of evidentiary value are identified and collected. They can take the forms of external disks, computers, phones, video game consoles, servers and any other device capable of recording data. The large number of storage devices and their ever decreasing size present a big problem for law enforcement. For defense attorneys, who collects this evidence and how is very important to the case especially when non-law enforcement people collect evidence.

Closely related to collection, is the preservation of digital evidence. In order for digital evidence to be reliable, the evidence needs to be complete, accurate and verifiable. Any alterations in the data can lead to a number of defense arguments. While most law enforcement labs have systems in place to prevent this from ever becoming an issue, lay people such as store employees or corporate security can completely alter the original data. Of course, only a defense attorney that understands computer forensics can pick up on this and make an issue out of it.

The filtering process is where the analysis is done. Evidentiary/suspect files are extracted and non-suspect files are filtered out. Due to the increasing size of hard drives and the lack of staff, this process can take many months. The computer crime defense lawyer must have a good grasp on exactly what the examiner is doing and why. Quite often, the examiner will rely upon automated tools to speed up the filtering process. While this allows them to “cut to the chase” pretty quickly, it may also present one side of the story. Defense lawyers cannot rely upon their own experts to know what to look for when crafting a defense. Instead, they must have a grasp of everything the examiner could have done but chose not to for whatever reason. What files were not examined? What settings were used with the automated tools? As a result, what files were ignored and why? What do those files show? What could they have shown? To be effective, the state must nail down everything. When they don’t, they hand the defense a blank slate to which the defense attorney can write down and present to the jury, just about anything.

Presentation of the suspect of the evidentiary data normally starts with the examiner extracting the artifacts and organizing them onto a form of media such as a DVD. In addition to the media that the data is saved on, reports and testimony are also a part of the presentation. In just about every case, the examiner will use some type of computer forensic software which will generate a report. The defense must understand how this program works and how to read and make use of the report. As previously indicated, sometimes what is most important in a case is not just what is included in a report but what is left out. Nailing the examiner down to the reports and then exploiting the gaps in them can only be done if the defense attorney has a good understanding of the entire computer forensics process.

As you can see, there is a lot to know when it comes to computer forensics. Even if you cannot afford an expert, if your computer crimes defense attorney has a working knowledge of computer forensics and the prosecutor does not, you will have a leg up when it comes to plea negotiations, motions and trials. When the case is in court, your lawyer is either trying to each the judge, the jury or both. If your lawyer doesn’t understand the material, how can he or she be expected to teach anyone anything? Instead, the State’s expert will do the teaching and they will teach the jury that you are guilty and that your defense attorney is clueless.

Electronic “Snooping” – Not Just Unethical

As the Internet grows by leaps and bounds, information about nearly anyone is just a few keystrokes away. While it is clearly not a crime to perform an Internet search on someone’s name, ask friends and family about that person, or e-mail your acquaintances for information, it is surprisingly easy for mere curiosity to cross the line into an unethical or even illegal act.

Trying to enter someone’s private e-mail account or breaking into password-protected areas on social networking sites like Facebook, MySpace or Twitter can actually be criminal acts. In some states, these actions can be considered violations of privacy rights or fall under the purview of anti-stalking laws. Under federal law, these acts may be considered computer fraud, computer and information theft, or cyberterrorism, violations of which can even result in felony charges.

When Does Snooping Cross the Line?

Sometimes businesses or government agencies use hacking-type actions for legitimate purposes. As long as these actions are strictly controlled, for example to gather evidence of civil torts (such as dissemination of trade secrets, libel or defamation of character), criminal actions, or as part of a clearly publicized school or workplace policy, it is legal to access private e-mails. E-mails can be particularly valuable sources of information, given the fact that people are generally less guarded with their language and more apt to share incriminating information than they might be otherwise.

Hacking, defined as breaking through a security barrier without permission to access data, is both unethical and illegal if not used for legitimate civil or law enforcement purposes. There are several different methods of accessing someone’s e-mail – hackers have even posted videos on the Internet describing how to do it. Some computer software programs will run infinite combinations in attempting to obtain a user’s e-mail password; more common is for an individual to try to guess the password of an acquaintance.

It is also possible to gain access to private e-mails or Web pages via interception of information routed across the Internet. This may or may not be considered a criminal act, since the public Internet is an unsecured forum. Another method of gaining access to seemingly private e-mails or Web pages visited is to open the pages or programs on a computer when the prior user did not log out. While this is inappropriate, it is probably not illegal; there is no expectation of privacy if the information was left for public access.

Most would agree that using hacking techniques to break into the e-mail or private social networking page of another person (for example a former or current romantic partner, adult child or new beau) is wrong. To some, these actions may seem innocent – you may be just trying to gather information or playing a prank by resetting a friend’s password. No matter your intent, however, you may be in violation of state or federal law. It is important to remember that ignorance of the law is no defense. You can still be held liable regardless of whether or not you thought your actions were criminal.

Deleting Does Not Erase the Evidence

Even if you clear your Internet history or delete any documents you compiled, there is probably still evidence of hacking on your computer. Through the process of computer-hacking forensics investigation (commonly known as “cyberhacking”), experts can dig deep into the content of your computer and locate incriminating evidence. These types of investigations can be done in both civil cases (particularly business-related cases) and criminal cases (by law enforcement agencies, the military, and homeland-security or business-security specialists). While these investigations are expensive and time consuming, they are becoming more common.

Another method for gathering evidence of computer hacking is the process of keystroke logging. This method involves tracing and recording user keystrokes through hardware or a software program. These programs can be remotely installed and are, unfortunately, also used by scammers to discover sensitive personal and financial information.

It is important to remember that, particularly where the hacking involves social networking sites, that the person whose account was invaded often will discover the culprit. For instance, the hacker will brag to friends about the event, and someone will spill the beans and inform on the guilty party.

What Happens Next?

Not only does electronic snooping have possible civil and criminal consequences, it causes a serious headache for the person whose account was violated. While new e-mail accounts can be set up quickly, updating contact information with friends, family and businesses can be time-consuming. Furthermore, cancelling social networking accounts and establishing new ones could possibly take weeks, not to mention the time involved to try to prevent identity theft or internet fraud.

Laws governing violations of personal electronic information are constantly evolving. To learn more about current laws and potential courses of action if you have been a victim or perpetrator of hacking, you should consult an attorney who has in-depth knowledge of this emerging area of the law.

Drug Testing – An Effective Strategy in Catching Drug Users

Nowadays, drug testing has become one of the primary initiatives in big organizations. Its one of the effective ways to detect drug content in a human body. Not only in work places but educational institutions like schools, colleges and universities too consider it necessary for every individual. A drug screening is conducted where individuals pass through certain tests that finally point out the victim.

Presently, people with the help of certain formulated products like masking chemicals and synthetic urine succeeds in passing drug tests. Therefore, most employers do not depend on the normal testing procedures. There are ample modern drug testing methods that assures to fetch correct results. Some of them are hair testing, hair alcohol testing, saliva testing, urine testing and a few more.

Lets kick off with hair. Compared to sweat, saliva or urine testing, hair follicle drug testing is much more expensive. But its very true that the results obtained from such testing procedures is perfectly accurate. Hair follicle drug testing is one of the most sensitive methods in detecting drug content.

This flawless technique ensures employers with quick results in comparison to other procedures. It works superb in pointing out whether the employee is drug addicted or he has ended his drug intakes recently just to cover up his usage. Therefore, the ones who are planning to take formulated products with the object of getting through the test, might land up in great danger.

As far as the urine test goes, the individual on being asked by the employer goes to a separate collection site where his urine is collected in a specially designed and secured cup as part of a specimen. The cup is sealed with the help of a tamper resistant tape so that it remains safe. Sometimes, your physician with the help of express delivery space sends your urine specimen to the laboratory for testing. At the laboratory, the urine is basically divided into two aliquots. Out of that, one aliquot goes for the initial screening. Now, if the urine screen comes with positive results, the next aliquot is provided for confirmation. The test results are reviewed at the Medical Review Office by their appointed physicians. When results are declared negative, the MRO reports the employers.

Nowadays, hair alcohol drug tests are mostly conducted by researchers. Hair alcohol drug detecting test is primarily conducted for detecting the patterns of drinking among working employees and also students. This in fact help to identify social drinkers, regular drinkers and even non-drinkers. If your hair absorbs certain components like fatty acid ethyl esters and ethyl glucuronide, then your blood is bound to contain a certain amount of alcohol.

Presently, hair drug alcohol testing has come among the top preferences for many employers today who finds it simply best in trapping drug addicts. In fact, these drug detecting procedures are quite essential for the parents who remain unaware of their children’s health malpractices. Even business owners treat it as an essential alternative keeping in mind the harmful effects that might hamper his business.